Friday, January 1, 2010

The Evolution of Management Models

1900-1925: The Emerging of the Rational Goal Model and the Internal Process Model

Theoretical Perspective 1.1: Taylor's 4 Principle of Management (Fredrick Taylor: father of scientific management)
1. Develop a science for every job, which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method.
2. Systematically select workers so that they fit the job, and train them effectively.
3. Offer incentives so that workers behave in accordance with the principles of the sciences that has been developed.
4. Support workers by carefully planning their work and smoothing the way as they do their job.

Rational Goal Model: value of achievement and profit maximization
> symbol: dollar sign
> manager: decisive director and task-oriented producer

Internal Process Model: criteria of effectiveness are stability and continuity; routinization leads to stability
> symbol: pyramid
> manager: technically expert monitor and dependable coordinator

1926-1950: The Emergence of Human Relations Model

Theoretical Perspective 1.2: Faylo's General Principles of Management
1. Division of Work: produce more and better work with same effort. Reduction in number of tasks to which attention and effort must be directed
2. Authority and Responsibility: Right to give orders and essential counterpart. Whenever authority is exercised, responsibility is arised
3. Discipline: obedience and respect for the agreements between the firm and it's employees. Agreements arrived by discussions between each
4. Unity of Command: employee should receive order from one supervisor only
5. Unity of Direction: each group of activities having one objective should be unified by having one plan and one head
6. Subordination of individual interest to general interest: the interest of one employee or group of employees should not prevail over that of that of the company or broader organization
7. Remuneration of personnel:to maintain their loyalty and support, employees must receive a fair wage for services rendered
8. Centralization: natural order of things
9. Scalar Chain: chain of superiority ranging from the ultimate authority to the lowest ranks
10. Order: a place for everything, and everything in place
11. Equity: combination of kindliness and justice
12. Stability of tenure of personnel: high turnover increases inefficiency
13. Initiative: thinking out a plan and ensuring its success
14. Esprit de corps: union is strength, and it comes from the harmony of the personnel

Theoretical Perspective 1.3: Characteristics of Weberian Bureaucracy
Elements of Bureaucracy
1. There is a division of labor with responsibilities that are clearly defined
2. Positions are organized in hierarchy of authority
3. All personnel are objectively selected and promoted based on technical abilities
4. Administrative decisions are recorded in writing, and records are maintained over time
5. There are career mangers working for salary
6. There are standard rules and procedures that are uniformly applied to all

Human Relations Model: commitment, cohesion, and morale. Involvement results in commitment, and the key values are participation, conflict resolution, and consensus building.
> symbol: circle
> manager: empathetic mentor and a process-oriented facilitator

1951-1975: The Emergence of the Open Systems Model

Theoretical Perspective 1.4: Contingency Theory
Appropriateness of Managerial Actions Varies with Key Variables
1. Size. Problems of coordination increases as the size of organization increases. Appropriate coordination procedures for a large organization will not be efficient in a small organization, and vice versa.
2. Technology. The technology used to produce output varies. It may be very routine or very customized. The appropriateness of organizational structures, leadership styles, and control systems will vary with type of technology.
3. Environment. Organizations exist within larger environments. These may be uncertain and turbulent or predictable and unchanging. Organizational structures, leadership styles, and control systems will vary accordingly.
4. Individuals. People are not the same. They have very different needs. Managers must adjust their styles accordingly.

Open Systems Model: organization is faced with a need to compete in an ambiguous as well as competitive environment. Adaptability and external support. Political adaptation, creative problem solving, innovation and the management of change
> symbol: amoeba
> manager: creative innovator and politically astute broker

1976-Today: The Emergence of Both-And Assumptions

Rational Goal Internal ProcessHuman RelationsOpen System
SymbolDollar SignPyramidCircleAmoeba
Criteria of EffectivenessProductivity, profitStability, continuity Commitment, cohesion, moraleAdaptability, external support
Means-End Theory Clear direction leads to productive outcomesRoutinizataion leads to stabilityInvolvement results in commitmentContinual adaptation and innovation lead to acquiring and maintaining external resources
Action ImperativesCompeteControlCollaborateCreate
EmphasisGoal clarification, rational analysis, and action takingDefining responsibility, measurement, documentationParticipation, conflict resolution, and consensus buildingPolitical adaptation, creative problem solving, innovation, change management
ClimateRational Economic: bottom lineHierarchical Team OrientedInnovative, flexible
Role of ManagerDirector and producerMonitor and coordinatorMentor and facilitatorInnovator and broker

Action Imperatives: Collaborate, Control, Compete, Create
The Use of Opposing Models

Behavioral Complexity and the Effectiveness of Managerial Leaders

Becoming a Manager: The Need for New Competencies
- Compete: The Director and Producer Roles
> Director: expected to clarify expectations through processes, such as planning and goal setting, and to be a decisive initiator who define problems, selects alternatives, establishes objectives, defines roles and tasks, generates rules and policies and gives instructions
> Producer: producers are expected to be task oriented and work focused and to have high interest, motivation, energy, and personal drive. They are suppose to accept responsibility, complete assignments, and maintain high personal productivity. Accomplish stated goals.
- Control: Monitor and Coordinator Roles
> Monitor: know what is going on in the unit, to determine whether people are complying with the rules, and to see whether the unit it meeting its quotas. Knows all facts and details, and is good at analysis. Zeal for handling data and forms, reviewing and responding to routine information, conducting inspections and tours, and authoring review of reports and other documents. Care for details, control and analysis. Attention to measures, reports and data.
> Coordinator: maintain a structure and flow of system. Dependable and Reliable. Scheduling, organizing, coordinating staff efforts, handling crisis, and attending to technological, logistical and housekeeping issues.
- Collaborate: The Facilitator and Mentor Roles
> Facilitator: foster collective effort, build cohesion and teamwork, and manage interpersonal conflict. Process Oriented. Problem Solving, conflict resolution, interpersonal dispute.
> Mentor: development of people through caring, empathetic orientation. Helpful, considerate, sensitive, approachable, open and fair. Listens, supports legitimate requests, conveys appreciation, and gives compliment and credits. Skill building, training, individual development.
- Create: The Innovator and Broker Roles
> Innovator: facilitate adaptation and change. Pay attention to changing environments, identifies important trends, conceptualizes and projects needed change, and tolerates uncertainty and risk. Rely on introduction, ideas and intuitive insights. Creative, clever dreamers who see the future, envision innovations, package them in inviting ways, and convince others they are necessary and desirable. People with vision.
> Broker: maintaining external legitimacy and obtaining external resources. Meet people outside of unit to represent, negotiate, and to acquire resources.

The Eight Roles at Different Organization Levels and Identifying the Core Competencies

1. Mentor Role: a. Understanding Self and Others b. Communication Effectively c. Developing Employees
2. Facilitator Role: a. Building Teams b. Using Participative Decision Making c. Managing Conflits
3. Monitor Role: a. Managing Information Overload b. Analyzing Core Processes c. Measuring Performance and Quality d. Measuring Performance and Quality
4. Coordinator Role: a. Managing Projects b. Designing Work c. Managing Across Functions
5. Director Role: a. Developing and communication a vision b. Setting Goals and Objectives c. Designing and Organizing
6. Producer Role: a. Working Productively b. Fostering a Productive Environment c. Managing Time and Stress
7. Innovator Role a. Living with Change b. Thinking Creatively d. Managing Change
8. Broker Role: a. Building and Maintaining Power Base b. Negotiating Agreement and Commitment c. Presenting Ideas

Organizing the Learning Process

Step 1: Assessment. Help you discover your present level of ability in and awareness of competency. Any number of tools, such as questionnaires, role-plays, or group discussions, might be used.
Step 2: Learning. Involves reading and presenting information about topics using traditional tools, such as lectures and printed material. Here we present information from relevant research and suggest guidelines for practice.
Step 3: Analysis. Explores appropriate and inappropriate behaviors by examining how other behave in given situation. We will use cases, role-plays, or other examples of behavior. Examples from popular movies, tv shows, or novels for analysis
Step 4: Practice. Allows you to apply the competency to a work like situation while in classroom. It is an opportunity for experimentation and feedback. Again, exercises, stimulations, and role-plays will be used.
Step 5: Application. Give you the opportunity to transfer process to real-life situations. Usually assignments are made to facilitate short and long term experimentations.

Critical Thinking

Part 1: Think of a topic/issue that you find very upsetting and frustrating. Do a little "ranting" on the issue. Write some very strong emotional statements about this issue or situation. 4-5 Sentences.
Part 2: Imagine going to public and convincing someone else to share some intensity you about this issue. Argument- Reasoning.

Support your claims and proposals in a systematic and concise way.

Thinking about Thinking
- Managers spend a lot of time both presenting evident to support their own ideas and evaluating ideas presented by others.
- Effective manager are effective thinkers
- Approach ideas with openness and healthy skepticism

Management and Sound Reasoning
- Effective managers are good at both framing their own arguments and reacting to argument of others
- Task of critical thinker is to make the best decision with the available information in a particular circumstance

Most Arguments have 3 Elements
1. Claim: conclusion of argument; answers the question- what is the point here?
2. Grounds: facts and evidence that support the claim. The claim can be no stronger than the ground that supports it; answers question- what leads you to say that?
3. Warrants: bridge between claim and grounds; answers question- how does claim connect to the grounds offered

Chapter 1: Becoming a Master Manager: A Competing Values Approach

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